Project update: Livestock Containment

SFS stock containment 1920px
SFS stock containment 1920px

Project

Funding: This project is supported by Vic Hub South-West Node Southern Farming Systems & North-East Node Riverine Plains Inc, through funding from the Australian Government’s Future Drought Fund. You can find the Riverine Plains’ Business Case here.

Project length: December 2022 expansion June 2023

Locations: South-West Victoria

Status: current

Research Question

It has been identified that is commonly recognised the need to have livestock containment areas on farms is a good risk-management tool in drought, but there are many questions around issues with these areas to which we may or may not have the answers.

Research Information & Objectives

To investigate livestock containment area’s on farms, who uses them? Under what situations, pro’s and con’s and identify where further research, development or extension is required using farmer focus groups.

The Vic Drought Hub innovation grants has allowed expansion of this project to include building farmer skills to create trigger points for containment feeding decisions and satellite monitoring of groundcover and dry feed to inform these decision points.  It will use the satellite monitoring platform from the soon to be completed My Farm Dashboard, Building Farm Resilience, National Landcare Project (led by SFS, with Fed Uni and CiboLabs) that has calibrated pasture cover estimations in the high rainfall zone (VIC, SA, TAS).

Resources:

Farm Focus – Livestock Containment Video

Design
Agricultural Victoria (2018a) Stock containment areas more than a drought measure. [Online]. October 2018. Available by https://agriculture.vic.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/537578/Stock-containment-areas.pdf) (verified 1 November 2022)

Agricultural Victoria (2020a) Focus on stock containment areas. Available by (Focus on – Stock Containment Areas on Vimeo plus Microsoft PowerPoint – Beef Sheep Network Webinar SCAs.pptx (necma.vic.gov.au) (verified 1 November 2022)

Agricultural Victoria (2020b) Stock containment areas at Woodstock West. Video [Online]. Available by (Stock containment areas at Woodstock West | Drought case studies | Case studies | Support and resources | Agriculture Victoria) (verified 1 November 2022)

Agricultural Victoria (2020c) Stock containment areas at Wooroonook. Video [Online]. Available by (Stock containment areas at Wooroonook | Drought case studies | Case studies | Support and resources | Agriculture Victoria) (verified 1 November 2022)

Agricultural Victoria (2022b) Stock containment area for emergency. [Online]. Available by (Stock containment areas for emergencies | Land and pasture management | Farm management | Agriculture Victoria) (verified 1 November 2022)

AWI (2017) Managing sheep in drought lots a best practice guide. [Online]. Available by (Drought Resources | Australian Wool Innovation) (verified 1 November 2022)

AWI (2020) Managing sheep in containment areas after fire. [Online]. Available by (managing-sheep-in-containment-areas-2020.pdf (wool.com)) (verified 1 November 2022)

DEDJTR (2018). CHAPTER 6 Design. In ‘Drought feeding and management of sheep – a guide for famers and land managers.’ Victorian Department of Economic Development, Jobs, Transport and Resources, Melbourne. [Online]. Available by Sheep Drought Feeding Guide – PDF Format | Feeding Livestock | Agriculture Victoria (verified 1 November 2022)

Duddy G, Shands C, Bell, A, Hegarty R and Casburn G (2016) Feedlotting lambs. [Online]. PrimeFact. Edition Second. Available by Feedlotting lambs (nsw.gov.au) (verified 1 November 2022)

Goodwin (2020) Containment feeding proves its worth beyond drought. [Online]. Available by (Containment feeding proves its worth beyond drought | Farm Online | ACT) (verified 1 November 2022)

Grain & Graze (2012) Planning stock containment areas. [Online]. Available by (177_JenniBryanFactSheetFINAL.pdf (grainandgraze3.com.au)) (verified 1 November 2022)

Landscape SA Hills and Fleurieu (2015) Stock containment areas.- More than a drought measure [Online]. Available by (stock-containment-areas-fact-sheet.pdf (environment.sa.gov.au)) (verified 1 November 2022)

Lieschke A (2022) Landscape resilience during drought. Local Land Services (Unpublished Dec 2022)

LLS (2018) Drought handbook Support in the Central Tablelands. Local Land Services, NSW [Online]. Edition X Available by (lls-drought-handbook.pdf (nsw.gov.au)) (verified 1 November 2022)

Masters (2020) What to consider before containment feeding. [Online]. Available by (What to consider before containment feeding | Meat & Livestock Australia (mla.com.au)) (verified 1 November 2022)

Mackay B and House J (2007). Confinement feeding of cattle in drought: protecting the environment.” [Online]. NSW DPI PrimeFact. Available by (Confinement feeding of cattle in drought: protecting the environment (lowlinecattleassoc.com.au)) (verified 1 November 2022)

 Water

Agricultural Victoria (2022a) Water supply in stock containment areas. [Online]. Available by (Water supply in stock containment areas | Managing dams | Water | Farm management | Agriculture Victoria) (verified 1 November 2022)

AWI (2006) Stock water limited resource. [Online]. Available by (awi-stock-water.pdf (wool.com) (verified 1 November 2022)

DPI (2010) Lamb lot feeding – opportunities in the Wimmera Mallee Pipeline region. Department of Primary Industries, Melbourne, Victoria.

Animal Health

Banchero G, Chalkling D, Mederos A. (2015) Survey of health and management problems during finishing in cattle in confinement systems in Uruguay. Veterinary (Montevideo.) 52. [Online]. Available by (Survey of sanitary and management problems during termination in cattle in confinement systems in Uruguay (scielo.edu.uy) (verified 1 November 2022)

Besier B, Jacobsen C, Woodgate R and Bell K (2010). Sheep Health In ‘International Sheep and Wool Handbook.’ (ed. DJ Cottle) pp. 471-488. Nottingham University Press, Nottingham.

Bowen MK, Ryan MP, Jordan DJ, Beretta V, Kirby RM, Stockman C, McIntyre BL and Rowe JB. (2006) Improving sheep feedlot management. In ‘Proceedings of the 2006 Australian Sheep Industry CRC Conference.’ (Eds. PB Cronjé & D Maxwell). [Online]. Available by (CRC Proceedings.indb (daf.qld.gov.au)) (verified 1 November 2022)

DEDJTR (2018). CHAPTER 7 Sheep diseases associated with drought. In ‘Drought feeding and management of sheep – a guide for famers and land managers.’ Victorian Department of Economic Development, Jobs, Transport and Resources, Melbourne. [Online]. Available by Sheep Drought Feeding Guide – PDF Format | Feeding Livestock | Agriculture Victoria (verified 1 November 2022)

Kangaroo Island Veterinary Clinic (2020) Confinement Feeding of Livestock. [Online]. Available by (Confinement Feeding of Livestock – KANGAROO ISLAND VETERINARY CLINIC) (verified 1 November 2022)

Kelly J (2021) Confinement feeding sheep – Veterinary learnings from the 2018-2020 drought. In ‘Proceedings 2021 Sheep, Camelid, and Goat Veterinarians Conference with a sheep reproduction stream.’ pp 35 (Wagga Wagga, NSW)). [Online]. Available by (scgv- conference-2021—proceedings-as-of-2.12.21.pdf (ava.com.au)) (verified 1 November 2022)

Infrastructure & Operational Labour

Arthur P (2018) Advice sheep producers need as lambing ramps up. Weekly Times. Available by https://www.farmonline.com.au/story/5607886/advice-you-need-as-lambing-ramps-up/ (verified 1 November 2022)

DEDJTR (2018). CHAPTER 4 Further tips for feeding. In ‘Drought feeding and management of sheep – a guide for famers and land managers.’ Victorian Department of Economic Development, Jobs, Transport and Resources, Melbourne. [Online]. Available by Sheep Drought Feeding Guide – PDF Format | Feeding Livestock | Agriculture Victoria (verified 1 November 2022)

Legatt J (2016). Feed mixer wagons stir debate among farmers. Weekly Times. Available by https://www.weeklytimesnow.com.au/machine/crop-gear/feed-mixer-wagons-stir-debate- among-farmers/news-story/341dcfc41465a8366b79c3299c26c92f (verified 1 November 2022)

May S, Romberger J and Poole J. (2012) Respiratory health effects of large animal farming environments. Part B: Critical Reviews. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, [Online]. Available by ((PDF) Respiratory Health Effects of Large Animal Farming Environments (researchgate.net)) (verified 1 November 2022)

Pedersen D 2018 Automated sheep feeder wins Henry Agri innovators award. Weekly Times. Available by Automated sheep feeder wins Henty Agri Innovators Award | The Land | NSW (verified 1 November 2022)

Southern Dirt (2020) What WA sheep farmers can learn from the drought in the eastern states. [Online]. Available by (WHAT WA SHEEP FARMERS CAN LEARN FROM THE DROUGHT IN THE EASTERN STATES – Southern Dirt) (verified 1 November 2022)

Stock Management

Herbel, CH, Wallace JD, Finkner MD, & Yarbrough CC (1984). Early Weaning and Part-year Confinement of Cattle on Arid Rangelands of the Southwest. Range Management, 37, 127-130. [Online]. Available by (Early Weaning and Part-Year Confinement of Cattle on Arid Rangelands of the Southwest (arizona.edu)) (verified 1 November 2022)

Rasby R (2013) Confinement Feeding Beef Cows. In ‘Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Cornbelt Cow Calf Conference, Ottumwa. [Online]. Available by (ConfinementFeedingBeefCows.pdf (iowabeefcenter.org)) (verified 1 November 2022)

Rice M, Jongman EC, Borg S, Butler K (2016) Characterisation of Shy-feeding and Feeding lambs in the first week in a feedlot. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 179 [Online].

Available by (Characterisation of Shy-feeding and Feeding lambs in the first week in a feedlot | Request PDF (researchgate.net)) (verified 1 November 2022)

Robertson S (2020a) Optimising ewe reproductive performance in containment

Areas – a guide for producers.” Meat Livestock Australia [Online]. Available by (managing- breeding-ewes-in-containment-areas.pdf (mla.com.au)) (verified 1 November 2022)

Roberts D and Curnow M (2021). Confined paddock feeding and feed lotting of sheep. [Online]. Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development. Available by (Confined paddock feeding and feedlotting of sheep | Agriculture and Food) (verified 1 November 2022)

Ration Formulation

Roberts D (2022) Supplementary feeding and feed budgeting for sheep. Available by https://www.agric.wa.gov.au/feeding-nutrition/supplementary-feeding-and-feed- budgeting-sheep (verified 1 November 2022)

Agricultural Victoria (2021a) Feeding livestock web page. [Online]. Available by (https://www.feedinglivestock.vic.gov.au/) (verified 1 November 2022)

Agricultural Victoria (2021b) Pasture tools. [Online]. Available by (Pasture Resources | Feeding Livestock | Agriculture Victoria | Agriculture Victoria) (verified 1 November 2022)

Agricultural Victoria (2021c) Pearson square ration formulation. [Online]. Available by (Sheep Tools | Feeding Livestock | Agriculture Victoria | Agriculture Victoria) (verified 1 November 2022)

NSW DPI (2014) Drought Feed Calculator app. [Online]. Available by (Drought Feed Calculator on the App Store (apple.com)) (verified 1 November 2022)

DEDJTR 2018. CHAPTER 3 What to feed sheep. In ‘Drought feeding and management of sheep – a guide for famers and land managers.’ Victorian Department of Economic Development, Jobs, Transport and Resources, Melbourne. [Online]. Available by Sheep Drought Feeding Guide – PDF Format | Feeding Livestock | Agriculture Victoria (verified 1 November 2022)

Feeding Systems

Agricultural Victoria (2018b) Drought feeding and management of beef cattle a guide for farmers and land managers 2018. [Online]. Available by (https://www.feedinglivestock.vic.gov.au/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/Beef-cattle- drought-feeding-guide.pdf) (verified 1 November 2022)

AWI (2019) Releasing sheep from containment feeding. [Online]. Available by (releasing- sheep-from-containment-feeding-v3.pdf (wool.com)) (verified 1 November 2022)

Bowen M, Ryan M, Jordan D, Beretta V, Kirby R, Stockman C, McIntyre B, Rowe J, (2006) Improving sheep feedlot management. In ‘Wool Meets Meat. Proceedings of the 2006 sheep industry CRC conference’. (Eds P Cronje, B Maxwell) pp. 134-141. (Sheep Industry CRC). [Online]. Available by Improving sheep feedlot management (livestocklibrary.com.au)

Court J (2002) Sheep and Drought: 5 Feeding in stock containment areas, Sept 2002, AG1022. ISSN 1329-8062.

Cusack (2021) Drought versus production feeding of sheep. In ‘Proceedings 2021 Sheep,

Camelid, and Goat Veterinarians Conference with a sheep reproduction stream.’ pp 35 (Wagga Wagga, NSW)). [Online]. Available by (scgv-conference-2021—proceedings-as-of- 2.12.21.pdf (ava.com.au)) (verified 1 November 2022)

Jordan RM, Hanke HE (1963) Frequency of feeding, roughage-concentrate ratio for pregnant ewes and summer drylot feeding of non-lactating ewes. Journal of Animal Science 22, 679- 685.

Kangaroo Island Veterinary Clinic (2020) Confinement Feeding of Livestock. [Online]. Available by (Confinement Feeding of Livestock – KANGAROO ISLAND VETERINARY CLINIC) (verified 1 November 2022)

MLA 2020. Dry Time Ready – Creating a climate-resilient feeding plan. Coach manual. MLA Profitable Grazing Systems Training Package.

McDonald C, Norris R, Speijers E, Ridings H (1990) Feeding behaviour of Merino wethers under conditions similar to lot-feeding before live export. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 30, 343-348.

Southcott W, McClymont G (1960) Drought feeding of cattle. II. Comparison of daily and weekly feeding of all-grain rations: with observations on vitamin A status. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 11, 445-456.

McFarland I, Curnow M, Hyder M, Ashton B and Roberts D (2006) Feeding and managing sheep in dry times. Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Western Australia, Perth. Bulletin 4697 [Online]. Available by (“Feeding and managing sheep in dry times” by Ian McFarland, Mandy Curnow et al. (dpird.wa.gov.au)) (verified 1 November 2022)

McGregor BA (2005) Nutrition and management of goats in drought. Rural Industries and Development Corporation [Online]. Available by (05-188.pdf (agrifutures.com.au)) (verified 1 November 2022)

MLA (2022) Confinement feeding. [Online]. Available by (Confinement feeding | Meat & Livestock Australia (mla.com.au)) (verified 1 November 2022)

Robertson SM, Morona A, Gunn A,C, Piltz J, Scott CJ and Friend MA (2022) Frequency of feeding during the periconceptional period did not alter reproduction in Merino sheep. Animal Production Journal [Online] Available by CSIRO PUBLISHING | Animal Production Science

Andrews T and Littler B (2019a) Confinement feeding stock. NSW DPI [Online]. Edition Second Available by (Confinement feeding stock (nsw.gov.au)) (verified 1 November 2022)

DEDJTR (2018). CHAPTER 4 Feeding sheep – how much and how often. In ‘Drought feeding and management of sheep – a guide for famers and land managers.’ Victorian Department of Economic Development, Jobs, Transport and Resources, Melbourne. [Online]. Available by Sheep Drought Feeding Guide – PDF Format | Feeding Livestock | Agriculture Victoria (verified 1 November 2022)

White D, Ternouth A (1970) Reproductive performance of Merino sheep fed a drought ration of wheat at time of mating. Proceedings of the Australian Society of Animal Production 8, 358- 361.

Economics & Business

Alemseged (2021) Developing a framework for tactical decision making to address feed deficits. Meat Livestock Australia (Report unpublished Dec 2022)

Webb Ware (2021) Drought management: planning and cashflow. In ‘Proceedings 2021 Sheep, Camelid, and Goat Veterinarians Conference with a sheep reproduction stream.’ pp 35 (Wagga Wagga, NSW)). [Online]. Available by (scgv-conference-2021—proceedings-as- of-2.12.21.pdf (ava.com.au)) (verified 1 November 2022)

Whelan MB, Davies BL, Meaker GP, Graham P, Carberry PM and McPhee MJ (2013) Exploring management options before dry spells and in drought: 2 Case studies using drought pack, FSA pack and ImPack. Natural Sciences Education 42 pp 173-178. [Online]. Available by (PDF) StockPlan—Exploring Management Options before Dry Spells and in Drought: 2. Case Studies Using Drought Pack, FSA Pack, and ImPack (researchgate.net) (verified 1 November 2022)

White T (2014) A case study of drought management Glen Elgin Angus, Henty, NSW. In: Australasian Agribusiness Perspectives Paper 100. [Online]. Available by (White.pdf (agrifood.info)) (verified 1 November 2022)

Drought response, climate & environment

AgSurf, 2022 AgSurf. Department of Agriculture Fisheries and forestry [Online]. Available by AGSURF Data – Australian Burea of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences (agriculture.gov.au)

BOM, (2020) Previous droughts. Bureau of Meteorology. Available by Previous droughts (bom.gov.au) (verified 1 November 2022)

Debelle, G (2019). Climate Change and the Economy. Speech by Deputy Governor, Reserve Bank of Australia, Centre for Policy Development, Sydney [Online]. Available by https://www.rba.gov.au/speeches/2019/sp-dg-2019-03-12.html (verified 1 November 2022)

Department of Agriculture (2019). Australian government drought response, resilience and preparedness plan, Canberra. [Online]. Available by Australian Government Drought Response, Resilience and Preparedness Plan (agriculture.gov.au) (verified 1 November 2022)

DoEE (2017), Australia State of the Environment 2016, Department of the Environment and Energy, Canberra. [Online]. Available by Australia state of the environment 2016: overview (apo.org.au) (verified 1 November 2022)

Hatfield-Dodds S, Hughes N, Cameron A, Miller M & Jackson T (2018). Analysis of 2018 drought, ABARE insights. Department of Agriculture and Water Resources, Australian Bureau of Agricultural Resource Economics and Sciences Canberra, [Online]. Available by abares- insights-analysis-2018-drought.pdf (agriculture.gov.au) (verified 1 November 2022)

Productivity Commission (2009). Government Drought Support, Productivity Commission Inquiry Report No.46, Productivity Commission, Melbourne. [Online]. Available by Government Drought Support – Inquiry report (pc.gov.au) (verified 1 November 2022)

Rickards, L. (2011) Critical Breaking Point: the effects of climate variability, change and other pressures on farm households. Report for the Birchip Cropping Group and the Sustainable Agriculture Initiative Platform Australia. [Online]. Available by http://www.bcg.org.au/cb_pages/publications.php (verified 1 November 2022)

Legislation, procedures and guidelines

Animal Health Australia (2014). Australian Animal Welfare Standards and Guidelines – Sheep. Version 1.0 January 2016 Endorsed. [Online]. Available by Sheep-Standards-and- Guidelines-for-Endorsed-Jan-2016-061017.pdf (animalwelfarestandards.net.au) (verified 1 November 2022)

Dickson H (2020). Final Report L.LSM.0022 National procedures and guidelines for intensive sheep and lamb feeding systems. Meat & Livestock Australia, North Sydney. [Online].

Available by Updated – National procedures and guidelines for intensive sheep and lamb feeding systems – Final (mla.com.au) (verified 1 November 2022)

NSW DPI (2019b) Temporary arrangements for drought and other emergency events. [Online] Available by (Project title can go over two lines (nsw.gov.au)) (verified 1 November 2022)

Standing Committee on Agriculture (SCA) (Ed.) 1990. ‘Feeding standards for Australian livestock: Ruminants.’ (CSIRO: Melbourne).

Drought Relief Incentives and Reviews

AgVic (2021) Victoria’s Drought Preparedness and Response Framework. Agriculture Victoria. [Online]. Available by Victoria’s Drought Preparedness and Response Framework | Managing for and during drought | Farm management | Agriculture Victoria (verified 1 November 2022)

Ashton BL, Hannay JN (1984). Lot feeding of sheep through the 1982 drought. Technical report no. 67. Adelaide, South Australia: Department of Agriculture South Australia.

Bluml MR, Williamson JR, & Moran RJ (1996). A review of the department of conservation and natural resources response to the 1994/95 drought. Centre for Land Protection Research Technical Report No. 39 [Online]. Available by CNR DROUGHT REPORT 1994/1995 (agriculture.vic.gov.au) (verified 1 November 2022)

Coutts J and Sampson A 2007. Drought lots for drought assistance review project. Draft NSW DPI.

Dowling and Crossley (2004) The environmental impact of sheep confinement feeding systems. [Online]. Available by ((PDF) THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF SHEEP CONFINEMENT FEEDING SYSTEMS (researchgate.net)) (verified 1 November 2022)

Gippsland farmer (2019). Agriculture Victoria Drought Support Services [Online]. Available by Government | GippslandFarmer (verified 1 November 2022)

Holechek J (1996) Drought in New Mexico: Prospects and Management. Rangelands, 18, 225-227. [Online]. Available by (Drought in New Mexico: Prospects and Management (arizona.edu)) (verified 1 November 2022)

Morbey A, Ashton B (1990). Lot feeding of sheep on Eyre Peninsula during the 1988 drought. Technical report no. 155. Adelaide, South Australia: Department of Agriculture South Australia

NECMA (2015) Stock containment grants available. Northeast CMA [Online]. Available by Stock containment area grants available | North Central Catchment Management Authority (nccma.vic.gov.au)

Robinson IB (1982). Drought relief schemes for the ‘Pastoral zone,’ Aust Range J 4(2), 67-77. Conference Proceedings 3rd Biennial conference of the Australian Rangeland Society, Alice Springs Sep. 1981

Research and Extension Gaps

Bessen B (2003) Final Report SCSB.047 Sheep Confinement Feeding Systems. Meat Livestock Australia, North Sydney. [Online]. Available by Microsoft Word – SCSB.047 _2005-12-05_ Final Report.doc (mla.com.au)

Robertson S (2020b) Optimising ewe reproductive performance in containment areas in containment areas Final Report. Meat Livestock Australia [Online]. Available by (Optimising ewe reproductive performance in containment areas | Meat & Livestock Australia (mla.com.au) (verified 1 November 2022)

Robertson S, Gunn A, Piltz J and Friend M (2021) A survey of producer practices and reproductive performance of containment and supplementary fed ewes. Australian Veterinary Journal 99 issue 12, pp 535-550. [Online]. Available by (CSIRO PUBLISHING | Animal Production Science) (verified 1 November 2022)

Project Leaders: